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Open Access Research

Mitochondrial pathogenic mutations are population-specific

Michael S Breen and Fyodor A Kondrashov*

Author Affiliations

Bioinformatics and Genomics Programme, Centre for Genomic Regulation, UPF, C/Dr. Aiguader 88, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park Building, 08003 Barcelona, Spain

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Biology Direct 2010, 5:68  doi:10.1186/1745-6150-5-68

Published: 31 December 2010

Abstract

Background

Surveying deleterious variation in human populations is crucial for our understanding, diagnosis and potential treatment of human genetic pathologies. A number of recent genome-wide analyses focused on the prevalence of segregating deleterious alleles in the nuclear genome. However, such studies have not been conducted for the mitochondrial genome.

Results

We present a systematic survey of polymorphisms in the human mitochondrial genome, including those predicted to be deleterious and those that correspond to known pathogenic mutations. Analyzing 4458 completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes we characterize the genetic diversity of different types of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African (L haplotypes) and non-African (M and N haplotypes) populations. We find that the overall level of polymorphism is higher in the mitochondrial compared to the nuclear genome, although the mitochondrial genome appears to be under stronger selection as indicated by proportionally fewer nonsynonymous than synonymous substitutions. The African mitochondrial genomes show higher heterozygosity, a greater number of polymorphic sites and higher frequencies of polymorphisms for synonymous, benign and damaging polymorphism than non-African genomes. However, African genomes carry significantly fewer SNPs that have been previously characterized as pathogenic compared to non-African genomes.

Conclusions

Finding SNPs classified as pathogenic to be the only category of polymorphisms that are more abundant in non-African genomes is best explained by a systematic ascertainment bias that favours the discovery of pathogenic polymorphisms segregating in non-African populations. This further suggests that, contrary to the common disease-common variant hypothesis, pathogenic mutations are largely population-specific and different SNPs may be associated with the same disease in different populations. Therefore, to obtain a comprehensive picture of the deleterious variability in the human population, as well as to improve the diagnostics of individuals carrying African mitochondrial haplotypes, it is necessary to survey different populations independently.

Reviewers

This article was reviewed by Dr Mikhail Gelfand, Dr Vasily Ramensky (nominated by Dr Eugene Koonin) and Dr David Rand (nominated by Dr Laurence Hurst).